Monitoring Lower Meghna River of Bangladesh using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

M Rahman Akhand, S M Mizanur Rahman, Mozammel Haque Sarker

Abstract


Abstract

The Lower Meghna River region of Bangladesh is a unique environment where the constant process of land formation and erosion takes place due to the complex interactions between large river discharge, enormous sediment load and strong tidal forces. These hydrodynamic factors and their interactions shape the morphology of the lower Meghna River. During dry season upland fresh water flow into the Bay through the river is very much lower than that of monsoon season. Tidal action becomes stronger and dominates water flow pattern in the study area of the lower Meghna River. The distribution of flow and water level in the channel of the Meghna River are governed by river discharge, the tide and the wind speed. Velocity is higher during ebb tide than that of flood tide due to combined effect of upstream flow and downward tidal current. Velocity in monsoon is much higher compare to dry period because upstream discharge is higher in monsoon. Most of the accretion and erosion mainly occurs during monsoon and post monsoon period. In pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, wave height is less compared to monsoon as wind speed is less during these periods. Along the Bank of this study area, significant wave is considerable. As a result, tremendous whirl action due to tidal effects and whirl action due to enormous drainage flow during monsoon, wave action, tidal surge of the lower Meghna causes breaching of the major parts of the embankments of and adjacent area. The present paper focused on monitoring the lower Meghna River using remote sensing and GIS technology. The study reveals that both sides of the river bank of the study area have been eroded during 1973-2010 and number of Islands and also area of Island have been increased in 2010 compare to 1973.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic, Monsoon, Remote sensing, GIS


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ISSN : 2251-1563