Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Produced Water and Its Potential Effects on the Rivers and Delta States, Niger Delta

GODWIN U. AKPAN

Abstract


Produced water (or formation water) is one of the materials widely used during drilling operations. It is an integral component of hydrocarbon recovery process and is usually produced during the production process of oil wells. Produced water effluents are frequently discharged into the environment (or water bodies) during separation process where it adversely affects the receiving water body and the terrestrial environment. The experiment to determine the chemical properties of produced water and its potential effect on the Niger Delta environment was conducted at the soil science laboratory, University of Uyo, Nigeria. Produced water was collected from oil wells in Delta and Rivers States and analysed for chemical properties using standard methods.  The results showed the occurrence of the following chemical properties in both Rivers and Delta NO3, Fe, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and V. All the heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and V) content in the produced water were above the prescribed acceptable limit by World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) for drinking water, water for livestock and aquatic life. Therefore, if this produced water is discharged into the water bodies, there is likelihood of polluting the sourcesof drinking water of the people, destroying the means of livelihood of the people (which is fishing) and systematically killing the peoples. Therefore, produced water should not be discharged into the water bodies but should be discharged into trenches lined with clay. Clay with large surface area will adsorbed all the ions in its sorption sites, while the water will drain gradually down the soil profile.

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ISSN : 2251-1563