SYNTHESIS OF TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM AND ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES MODELS: AN EXPLORATION OF DISASTER- RELATED PREDICTORS OF INNOVATION ADOPTION

abdullahi umar

Abstract


The purpose of this paper is examining the imperativeness of synthesizing disaster related constructs with the traditional variables often studied in innovation adoption. To achieve this, the paper drew on upper echelon theory. A conceptual model was formulated and relationships were establihed based on literature review. The literature supported the following claims made in the paper: there exist a relationship between external influences and the trategic stance the firm on innovation adoption, internal features of TMTs are good determinants of TMT’s adoption behavior, there is significant retionship between external and internal environment of TMTs , and that the adopted innovation can equally have certain feed-back influence on the external environment. The obvious contribution of the paper is the framework that gives better understanding of innovation adoption even within the context disaster phenomena that influence TMTs adoption behavior. However, the paper is not without some shortcomings that will better be addressed through future empirical study.


References


Aagard P. (2012). Drivers & carriers of public innovation in crime prevention: Public : The Public

Sector. Innovation Journal, Volume 17(1), 2012, article 6.

Byron, M. B. & Shooter, B. S. (2005). an Introduction To Innovation Adoption :

Theories for the Design of a Product Family Information Management Infrastructure. Proceedings of IMECE

Aliyu, A. A., Tasmin, R. B-H. (2012); Information & Communication Technology In Nigerian

Banks. 3rd International Conference On Business And Economic Research (3rd Icber 2012 ) Proceeding 12 - 13 March 2012. Golden Flower Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia.

Altez, R. (2008). Keeping Disasre Alive Public and Private Roles in post Disaster Situation

in Vargas state Venezuela. Interntional Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos 2008

Teresa, M., Amabile, C. N., Hadley, S.& Kramer, J. (2002). Creativity Under the Gun. Harvard

Business Review, August,2002.

Amin, S. & Goldstein, M. (2008). Data Against Disaster;Establishing Effective of Relif

recovery and Rehabiliyation , The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developments, 2008 /World Bank: Sherif Design Group inc.

Aminu, M. & Nabi,l. B. (2009),"Managerial perspective on the impact of globalization in an

African commercial bank: Implications for strategy implementation", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 17 Iss: 3 pp. 184 - 201

Ammann , M. & Verhofen, M ( 2008). Tactical Industry Allocation and Model Uncertainty

Financial Review Volume 43, Issue 2, pages 273–302, May 2008.

Anderson, John E. and Schwager, Paul H., "SME Adoption of Wireless LAN Technology:Applying

the UTAUT Model" (2004). SAIS 2004 Proceedings. Paper http://aisel.aisnet.org/sais2004

Ando, S.& Saito, y. (2008). Gender in Cmmunity Based Disaster Risk Management: Experiences and

Challenges of UNCRD.International and risk conference Davos, 2008.

Aryal, R., K., Erdogan, N. & manyena, S. B. (2008). Risk and Reselience Communities in Nepal as a

Community Based Approach to Disaster Reduction:

Dhankua Experience. International and risk conferenceDavos, 2008.

Bessant, J. and Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Wiley, Chichester.

Birkmann, J. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, New York, United NationUniversity

Press

Birkmann, J.J., Fernando, N., Hettige, S. (2006), "Measuring vulnerability in Sri Lanka at the local

level", in Birkman, J. (Eds),Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster-Resilient Societies, United Nations University Press, Hong Kong,

pp.329-56.

Bolo, A. Z., Muchemi , A. W., Ogutu, M. (2011) Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects

on Corporate Performance. Business Administration and Management (BAM) Vol. 1(3), pp. 82-92, March 10th 2011

Brassington, F. Pettitti S.(2006) Principle of Marketing, 4th Ed. Pearson Educatyion Ltd.

Byron,M. Bethany and shooter, B. Steven ( 2005) Introduction to innovation adoption theories for

desgn of product family information mgt. Infrastructure; preceeding of

IMEECE.2005

Cannon, T. (1994), "Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of ‘natural’ disasters", in Varley, A.

(Eds),Disasters, Development and Environment, Wiley, London Cardona

Cavusoglu, H.;Hu, n.;Li, Y.; Ma, D. (2010) Information Technology diffusion with

influential, imitators & opponents. Journal of Management Information Systems Fall 2010, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 305–334

Choudrie, J., Papazafeiropoulou, A. & Lee, H. (2003). Applying stakeholders theory to analyse the

diffusion of broadband in south Korea. Journal of Information Technology Vol. 18, No. 4 pp.281-291

Correno, M. L. Cardona O. D. ,Barbat A.H., (2008) Disaster Risk from Macroeconomic Perspective:

A Metric for fiscal Vulnerability Evaluation; International Disaster and

Risk Conference,Davos, 2008.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: Systems characteristics, user perceptions and behaviroal impacts. International Journal of Man-Machin Studies, 38, 3, 475-487.

Dwevidi K.Yogesh; yoti, C.;Willem-paul, P. (2007) Development of survey instrument to examine

consumer adoption of broadband. Industrial management and data system,

Vol. 106 Iss: 5 ppp 700-71

Elie-Dit-Cossaque, C.; Pllud, J.; Kalika, m. ( 2012) . Influence of Individual,contextual & social

factors on Perceived Behavioral Control of Info-Tech . Journal of Management Information Systems / Winter 2011–12, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 201–234.

Frambach, T. Rudd; schillewaert, N. (1999) Organization innovation adoption:A multilevel

framework for further research. ISBN Report 29-1999

Freeman,K. Paul (2005) Estimating chronic risk from natural disastes in developing countries. Anual

Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.

John, A. Gambatese; Hollowell,M. (2011) Factors influencing diffusion in construction industry.

Construction Management and Economics (May 2011) 29, 507–517

Goyet, V. Cloude (1993) post disaster: the supply management challenge; Diasater, vol.17 iss2 pp

-176

Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top

managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-106.

Hart O. A., Sunday C. E., Joseph, E., U.& Benjamin J. (2011)."Upper echelon theory (UET): A major

determinant of information technology (IT) adoption by SMEs in Nigeria", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 144162

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, T.M. ( 1992). Stakeholder-agency theory. J. Manage. Stud. 29, 131–154.

Hiete, Michael & Merz, Mirjam (2009). An Indicator Framework to Assess the Vulnerability of

Industrial Sectors against Indirect Disaster Losses. In S. Jul & J. Landgren (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for CrisisResponse and Management (ISCRAM 2009), Gothenburg

Hochrainer, S. (2001) Assessing the macroeconomic impacts of natural disasres: Are there any?

International Institute for Applied system Analysis (IISA)

Michael, H.& Mirjam, M. ( 2009 ). Indicator Framework for the Assessment of Indirect Industrial

Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference– Gothenburg, Sweden, May 2009 J. Landgren and S. Jul, eds.

Holt, K. (1983) product innovation management 2nd Ed. Buttewrths co. Publishers Ltd.

Idisemi, A., Ann, L.& Robert, M. (2011),"Factors affecting the effective

utilisation and adoption of sophisticated ICT solutions: Case studies of SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria." Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 125 - 143

Jeyaraj et al., 2006) A review of the predictor, linkages and biases in IT innovation adoption

Research . Journal of Information Technology

Joseph, C. R. (2010). Individual resistance to IT Innovation. Communication of the ACN, Vol.53. No.4

King, J., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K., McFarlan, F., Raman, F. & Yap, F. W. (1994). Institutional factors in information technology innovation. Information Systems

research 5, 139-169

Kleindorfer, P.R. & Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains. Production

and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Don Knight1,C.L., Pearce, K. G., Smith1, J. D., Olian, H. P., Sims, K. A.& Patrick F.(1999 Top

Management Team Diversity, Group Process, And Strategic Consensus. Journal Of Strategic Management J., 20 445-456

Kotler, p.& Keller, L. (2006). Marketing Management 12th Ed: pearson Eeducation ltd.

Kleindorfer, P.R. and Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains.

Production and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Franz, T., Lohrke, A., Bedeian G. & Timothy, B. (2004). The role of top managementteams

in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 5/6 Iss. 2 pp. 63–90

Margaret, N. N. & Timothy M. W. (2011),"Development outcomes of internet and Mobile

phones use in Kenya: the households' perspectives", info, Vol. 13 Iss: 3 pp. 110 – 124 Mansumitrchai, S.;

Chiu, C. (2012) Adoption of internet Banking in UAE: Factors underlying Adoption

Characteristics. International Journal Of Management and Marketing Research Volume 5 Number 1 2012

Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality: published in 1954 (second edition

McAdam, R. (2005),"A multi-level theory of innovation implementation:

Normative evaluation, legitimisation and conflict." European Journal of Innovation

Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp. 373 - 388

McEntire, D.A. (2007a), "The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security", Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 5 No.4, pp.17-22.

McEntire, D.A. (2004). Tenets of vulnerability: an assessment of a fundamental

concept..Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 2 No.2, pp.23-9.

McEntire, D.A. ( 2003). “Searching for a Holistic Paradigm and Policy Guide: A Propofor

the Future of Emergency Management.” International Journal of Emergency Management 1 (3): 298-308.

Mechler, R. (2003) . Macr-economic impacts of natural disasters.

Motohashi, K., Lee., D-R., Sawag,Y-W. & kim, S-H. (2012). Innovative converged

service and its adoption, use and diffusion : a holistic approach to Dffusion of innovation . Journal of Business Economics and Management, 2012, 13(2): 308–333

Munson, S. N., Benap, C. D., Schelz ,M. Moran and T. W. Caroline (2011) on the brink of

change: plant response to climate on Colorado Plateau. Escosphere 2(6)

Michael E. Porter (2008) Competitive strategy. Harvard Business Revie January 2008

Ndubisi, N.O., and Sinti, Q.( 2006). Consumer attitudes, systems characteristics and Internet banking

adoption in Malaysia. Management Research News 29(1/2), 16-29.

Nwaka, I. G. (2005). the urban informal sector in Nigeria: towards economic development & social

harmony. Global urban development magazine vol 1 iss. 1

Okpara, C. Godwin (2009) A Synthesis of factors affecting banking sector in Nigeria. European

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-

Issue 17 (2009)

Popp, A.(2006) The effects of natural disaster in the long-run Major themes in Economics

Premkumar, G. & Robert, M. (1999). Adoption of new information technologies in rural Small

businesses. Omega, 27(4), 467-484.

Quazi, A.; Talukder, M. (2011) Demographic determinants of Adoption of innovation.Journal of

computer & Information systems

Robert, E. Hoskisson Michael F. Michael A. Hitt Richard A. Johnson( ) Th eeffects of

institutional ownership, heterogeneity and internal governance on corporateinnovation

strategies

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, Free Press, New York.

Rothwell, R.and Zegveld, W. (1981) Industrial innovation and public policy:preparing for 180s and

, frances printers publishers

Rubera,G.; Kirca, A., H. (2012) Firms innovativeness & its performance outcomes. Journal of

Marketing Volume 76 (May 2012), 130–147

Sohail (2003) E-Banking and customer preference in Malaysia: An empirical investigation

Information science

Sunday, C. E., Joseph, C. O., Okwudili, G. Tanawat Nebo; Sabastian, N. Ohakwe,

Emma, C.; Rosemery , A. ( 2011) .Using xtics of managers to understand IT Adoption in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 13 [Special Issue - July 2011]

TEARFUND, (2005). Mainstreming disaster risk reduction :a tool for development Organizations.

TEARFUND, 2005

Thong, James Y. L. (1999). An Integrated Model of Information Systems Adoption in Small

Businesses . journal of management information systems, 15(4), 187-214. Toya, H.;

Skidmore, M. ( 2005) Economic Development & and the impact of Natural

Disasrer. Working paper

UN-ISDR (DESA) (2002). Natural Disaster & Sustainable Development World Summit on Sustainable Development. Second preparatory session 28 January – 8 February2002

UNDP,( 2004). Reducing Disaster Risk: A challenge for development. New York: United

Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/rdr.htmUn-isdr

Wang P., Ramilla C. N. (2009). Community Learning in Information Technology ;MIS Quarterly Vol.

No. 4, pp. 709-734/December 2009

The world Bank, (2011). Innovation in disaster risk Financing For Developing countries: Public&

private contribution. Report

Xie, Y., Zhu, S.& Wang, J. (2008). Planning for Safer and More Sustainable future : Introduction of

Urban Planning for Hazards Mitigation Practices by CAUPD in

Chaina IDRC

Yodmani, S. ( 2001) Disaster Risk Management and Vulnerability Reduction: Protecting the Poor.

Paper presented at the Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty Organized by the

Asian Development Bank.

Zsidisin, A. G. ( 2003 ) A grounded definition of supply risk ;Journal of Purchasing Supply

Management 9 (2003) 217–224

.

Aagard P. (2012). Drivers & carriers of public innovation in crime prevention: Public : The Public

Sector. Innovation Journal, Volume 17(1), 2012, article 6.

Byron, M. B. & Shooter, B. S. (2005). an Introduction To Innovation Adoption :

Theories for the Design of a Product Family Information Management Infrastructure. Proceedings of IMECE

Aliyu, A. A., Tasmin, R. B-H. (2012); Information & Communication Technology In Nigerian

Banks. 3rd International Conference On Business And Economic Research (3rd Icber 2012 ) Proceeding 12 - 13 March 2012. Golden Flower Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia.

Altez, R. (2008). Keeping Disasre Alive Public and Private Roles in post Disaster Situation

in Vargas state Venezuela. Interntional Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos 2008

Teresa, M., Amabile, C. N., Hadley, S.& Kramer, J. (2002). Creativity Under the Gun. Harvard

Business Review, August,2002.

Amin, S. & Goldstein, M. (2008). Data Against Disaster;Establishing Effective of Relif

recovery and Rehabiliyation , The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developments, 2008 /World Bank: Sherif Design Group inc.

Aminu, M. & Nabi,l. B. (2009),"Managerial perspective on the impact of globalization in an

African commercial bank: Implications for strategy implementation", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 17 Iss: 3 pp. 184 - 201

Ammann , M. & Verhofen, M ( 2008). Tactical Industry Allocation and Model Uncertainty

Financial Review Volume 43, Issue 2, pages 273–302, May 2008.

Anderson, John E. and Schwager, Paul H., "SME Adoption of Wireless LAN Technology:Applying

the UTAUT Model" (2004). SAIS 2004 Proceedings. Paper http://aisel.aisnet.org/sais2004

Ando, S.& Saito, y. (2008). Gender in Cmmunity Based Disaster Risk Management: Experiences and

Challenges of UNCRD.International and risk conference Davos, 2008.

Aryal, R., K., Erdogan, N. & manyena, S. B. (2008). Risk and Reselience Communities in Nepal as a

Community Based Approach to Disaster Reduction:

Dhankua Experience. International and risk conferenceDavos, 2008.

Bessant, J. and Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Wiley, Chichester.

Birkmann, J. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, New York, United NationUniversity

Press

Birkmann, J.J., Fernando, N., Hettige, S. (2006), "Measuring vulnerability in Sri Lanka at the local

level", in Birkman, J. (Eds),Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster-Resilient Societies, United Nations University Press, Hong Kong,

pp.329-56.

Bolo, A. Z., Muchemi , A. W., Ogutu, M. (2011) Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects

on Corporate Performance. Business Administration and Management (BAM) Vol. 1(3), pp. 82-92, March 10th 2011

Brassington, F. Pettitti S.(2006) Principle of Marketing, 4th Ed. Pearson Educatyion Ltd.

Byron,M. Bethany and shooter, B. Steven ( 2005) Introduction to innovation adoption theories for

desgn of product family information mgt. Infrastructure; preceeding of

IMEECE.2005

Cannon, T. (1994), "Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of ‘natural’ disasters", in Varley, A.

(Eds),Disasters, Development and Environment, Wiley, London Cardona

Cavusoglu, H.;Hu, n.;Li, Y.; Ma, D. (2010) Information Technology diffusion with

influential, imitators & opponents. Journal of Management Information Systems Fall 2010, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 305–334

Choudrie, J., Papazafeiropoulou, A. & Lee, H. (2003). Applying stakeholders theory to analyse the

diffusion of broadband in south Korea. Journal of Information Technology Vol. 18, No. 4 pp.281-291

Correno, M. L. Cardona O. D. ,Barbat A.H., (2008) Disaster Risk from Macroeconomic Perspective:

A Metric for fiscal Vulnerability Evaluation; International Disaster and

Risk Conference,Davos, 2008.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: Systems characteristics, user perceptions and behaviroal impacts. International Journal of Man-Machin Studies, 38, 3, 475-487.

Dwevidi K.Yogesh; yoti, C.;Willem-paul, P. (2007) Development of survey instrument to examine

consumer adoption of broadband. Industrial management and data system,

Vol. 106 Iss: 5 ppp 700-71

Elie-Dit-Cossaque, C.; Pllud, J.; Kalika, m. ( 2012) . Influence of Individual,contextual & social

factors on Perceived Behavioral Control of Info-Tech . Journal of Management Information Systems / Winter 2011–12, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 201–234.

Frambach, T. Rudd; schillewaert, N. (1999) Organization innovation adoption:A multilevel

framework for further research. ISBN Report 29-1999

Freeman,K. Paul (2005) Estimating chronic risk from natural disastes in developing countries. Anual

Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.

John, A. Gambatese; Hollowell,M. (2011) Factors influencing diffusion in construction industry.

Construction Management and Economics (May 2011) 29, 507–517

Goyet, V. Cloude (1993) post disaster: the supply management challenge; Diasater, vol.17 iss2 pp

-176

Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top

managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-106.

Hart O. A., Sunday C. E., Joseph, E., U.& Benjamin J. (2011)."Upper echelon theory (UET): A major

determinant of information technology (IT) adoption by SMEs in Nigeria", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 144162

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, T.M. ( 1992). Stakeholder-agency theory. J. Manage. Stud. 29, 131–154.

Hiete, Michael & Merz, Mirjam (2009). An Indicator Framework to Assess the Vulnerability of

Industrial Sectors against Indirect Disaster Losses. In S. Jul & J. Landgren (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for CrisisResponse and Management (ISCRAM 2009), Gothenburg

Hochrainer, S. (2001) Assessing the macroeconomic impacts of natural disasres: Are there any?

International Institute for Applied system Analysis (IISA)

Michael, H.& Mirjam, M. ( 2009 ). Indicator Framework for the Assessment of Indirect Industrial

Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference– Gothenburg, Sweden, May 2009 J. Landgren and S. Jul, eds.

Holt, K. (1983) product innovation management 2nd Ed. Buttewrths co. Publishers Ltd.

Idisemi, A., Ann, L.& Robert, M. (2011),"Factors affecting the effective

utilisation and adoption of sophisticated ICT solutions: Case studies of SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria." Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 125 - 143

Jeyaraj et al., 2006) A review of the predictor, linkages and biases in IT innovation adoption

Research . Journal of Information Technology

Joseph, C. R. (2010). Individual resistance to IT Innovation. Communication of the ACN, Vol.53. No.4

King, J., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K., McFarlan, F., Raman, F. & Yap, F. W. (1994). Institutional factors in information technology innovation. Information Systems

research 5, 139-169

Kleindorfer, P.R. & Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains. Production

and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Don Knight1,C.L., Pearce, K. G., Smith1, J. D., Olian, H. P., Sims, K. A.& Patrick F.(1999 Top

Management Team Diversity, Group Process, And Strategic Consensus. Journal Of Strategic Management J., 20 445-456

Kotler, p.& Keller, L. (2006). Marketing Management 12th Ed: pearson Eeducation ltd.

Kleindorfer, P.R. and Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains.

Production and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Franz, T., Lohrke, A., Bedeian G. & Timothy, B. (2004). The role of top managementteams

in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 5/6 Iss. 2 pp. 63–90

Margaret, N. N. & Timothy M. W. (2011),"Development outcomes of internet and Mobile

phones use in Kenya: the households' perspectives", info, Vol. 13 Iss: 3 pp. 110 – 124 Mansumitrchai, S.;

Chiu, C. (2012) Adoption of internet Banking in UAE: Factors underlying Adoption

Characteristics. International Journal Of Management and Marketing Research Volume 5 Number 1 2012

Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality: published in 1954 (second edition

McAdam, R. (2005),"A multi-level theory of innovation implementation:

Normative evaluation, legitimisation and conflict." European Journal of Innovation

Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp. 373 - 388

McEntire, D.A. (2007a), "The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security", Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 5 No.4, pp.17-22.

McEntire, D.A. (2004). Tenets of vulnerability: an assessment of a fundamental

concept..Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 2 No.2, pp.23-9.

McEntire, D.A. ( 2003). “Searching for a Holistic Paradigm and Policy Guide: A Propofor

the Future of Emergency Management.” International Journal of Emergency Management 1 (3): 298-308.

Mechler, R. (2003) . Macr-economic impacts of natural disasters.

Motohashi, K., Lee., D-R., Sawag,Y-W. & kim, S-H. (2012). Innovative converged

service and its adoption, use and diffusion : a holistic approach to Dffusion of innovation . Journal of Business Economics and Management, 2012, 13(2): 308–333

Munson, S. N., Benap, C. D., Schelz ,M. Moran and T. W. Caroline (2011) on the brink of

change: plant response to climate on Colorado Plateau. Escosphere 2(6)

Michael E. Porter (2008) Competitive strategy. Harvard Business Revie January 2008

Ndubisi, N.O., and Sinti, Q.( 2006). Consumer attitudes, systems characteristics and Internet banking

adoption in Malaysia. Management Research News 29(1/2), 16-29.

Nwaka, I. G. (2005). the urban informal sector in Nigeria: towards economic development & social

harmony. Global urban development magazine vol 1 iss. 1

Okpara, C. Godwin (2009) A Synthesis of factors affecting banking sector in Nigeria. European

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-

Issue 17 (2009)

Popp, A.(2006) The effects of natural disaster in the long-run Major themes in Economics

Premkumar, G. & Robert, M. (1999). Adoption of new information technologies in rural Small

businesses. Omega, 27(4), 467-484.

Quazi, A.; Talukder, M. (2011) Demographic determinants of Adoption of innovation.Journal of

computer & Information systems

Robert, E. Hoskisson Michael F. Michael A. Hitt Richard A. Johnson( ) Th eeffects of

institutional ownership, heterogeneity and internal governance on corporateinnovation

strategies

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, Free Press, New York.

Rothwell, R.and Zegveld, W. (1981) Industrial innovation and public policy:preparing for 180s and

, frances printers publishers

Rubera,G.; Kirca, A., H. (2012) Firms innovativeness & its performance outcomes. Journal of

Marketing Volume 76 (May 2012), 130–147

Sohail (2003) E-Banking and customer preference in Malaysia: An empirical investigation

Information science

Sunday, C. E., Joseph, C. O., Okwudili, G. Tanawat Nebo; Sabastian, N. Ohakwe,

Emma, C.; Rosemery , A. ( 2011) .Using xtics of managers to understand IT Adoption in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 13 [Special Issue - July 2011]

TEARFUND, (2005). Mainstreming disaster risk reduction :a tool for development Organizations.

TEARFUND, 2005

Thong, James Y. L. (1999). An Integrated Model of Information Systems Adoption in Small

Businesses . journal of management information systems, 15(4), 187-214. Toya, H.;

Skidmore, M. ( 2005) Economic Development & and the impact of Natural

Disasrer. Working paper

UN-ISDR (DESA) (2002). Natural Disaster & Sustainable Development World Summit on Sustainable Development. Second preparatory session 28 January – 8 February2002

UNDP,( 2004). Reducing Disaster Risk: A challenge for development. New York: United

Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/rdr.htmUn-isdr

Wang P., Ramilla C. N. (2009). Community Learning in Information Technology ;MIS Quarterly Vol.

No. 4, pp. 709-734/December 2009

The world Bank, (2011). Innovation in disaster risk Financing For Developing countries: Public&

private contribution. Report

Xie, Y., Zhu, S.& Wang, J. (2008). Planning for Safer and More Sustainable future : Introduction of

Urban Planning for Hazards Mitigation Practices by CAUPD in

Chaina IDRC

Yodmani, S. ( 2001) Disaster Risk Management and Vulnerability Reduction: Protecting the Poor.

Paper presented at the Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty Organized by the

Asian Development Bank.

Zsidisin, A. G. ( 2003 ) A grounded definition of supply risk ;Journal of Purchasing Supply

Management 9 (2003) 217–224

.

Aagard P. (2012). Drivers & carriers of public innovation in crime prevention: Public : The Public

Sector. Innovation Journal, Volume 17(1), 2012, article 6.

Byron, M. B. & Shooter, B. S. (2005). an Introduction To Innovation Adoption :

Theories for the Design of a Product Family Information Management Infrastructure. Proceedings of IMECE

Aliyu, A. A., Tasmin, R. B-H. (2012); Information & Communication Technology In Nigerian

Banks. 3rd International Conference On Business And Economic Research (3rd Icber 2012 ) Proceeding 12 - 13 March 2012. Golden Flower Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia.

Altez, R. (2008). Keeping Disasre Alive Public and Private Roles in post Disaster Situation

in Vargas state Venezuela. Interntional Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos 2008

Teresa, M., Amabile, C. N., Hadley, S.& Kramer, J. (2002). Creativity Under the Gun. Harvard

Business Review, August,2002.

Amin, S. & Goldstein, M. (2008). Data Against Disaster;Establishing Effective of Relif

recovery and Rehabiliyation , The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developments, 2008 /World Bank: Sherif Design Group inc.

Aminu, M. & Nabi,l. B. (2009),"Managerial perspective on the impact of globalization in an

African commercial bank: Implications for strategy implementation", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 17 Iss: 3 pp. 184 - 201

Ammann , M. & Verhofen, M ( 2008). Tactical Industry Allocation and Model Uncertainty

Financial Review Volume 43, Issue 2, pages 273–302, May 2008.

Anderson, John E. and Schwager, Paul H., "SME Adoption of Wireless LAN Technology:Applying

the UTAUT Model" (2004). SAIS 2004 Proceedings. Paper http://aisel.aisnet.org/sais2004

Ando, S.& Saito, y. (2008). Gender in Cmmunity Based Disaster Risk Management: Experiences and

Challenges of UNCRD.International and risk conference Davos, 2008.

Aryal, R., K., Erdogan, N. & manyena, S. B. (2008). Risk and Reselience Communities in Nepal as a

Community Based Approach to Disaster Reduction:

Dhankua Experience. International and risk conferenceDavos, 2008.

Bessant, J. and Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Wiley, Chichester.

Birkmann, J. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, New York, United NationUniversity

Press

Birkmann, J.J., Fernando, N., Hettige, S. (2006), "Measuring vulnerability in Sri Lanka at the local

level", in Birkman, J. (Eds),Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster-Resilient Societies, United Nations University Press, Hong Kong,

pp.329-56.

Bolo, A. Z., Muchemi , A. W., Ogutu, M. (2011) Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects

on Corporate Performance. Business Administration and Management (BAM) Vol. 1(3), pp. 82-92, March 10th 2011

Brassington, F. Pettitti S.(2006) Principle of Marketing, 4th Ed. Pearson Educatyion Ltd.

Byron,M. Bethany and shooter, B. Steven ( 2005) Introduction to innovation adoption theories for

desgn of product family information mgt. Infrastructure; preceeding of

IMEECE.2005

Cannon, T. (1994), "Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of ‘natural’ disasters", in Varley, A.

(Eds),Disasters, Development and Environment, Wiley, London Cardona

Cavusoglu, H.;Hu, n.;Li, Y.; Ma, D. (2010) Information Technology diffusion with

influential, imitators & opponents. Journal of Management Information Systems Fall 2010, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 305–334

Choudrie, J., Papazafeiropoulou, A. & Lee, H. (2003). Applying stakeholders theory to analyse the

diffusion of broadband in south Korea. Journal of Information Technology Vol. 18, No. 4 pp.281-291

Correno, M. L. Cardona O. D. ,Barbat A.H., (2008) Disaster Risk from Macroeconomic Perspective:

A Metric for fiscal Vulnerability Evaluation; International Disaster and

Risk Conference,Davos, 2008.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: Systems characteristics, user perceptions and behaviroal impacts. International Journal of Man-Machin Studies, 38, 3, 475-487.

Dwevidi K.Yogesh; yoti, C.;Willem-paul, P. (2007) Development of survey instrument to examine

consumer adoption of broadband. Industrial management and data system,

Vol. 106 Iss: 5 ppp 700-71

Elie-Dit-Cossaque, C.; Pllud, J.; Kalika, m. ( 2012) . Influence of Individual,contextual & social

factors on Perceived Behavioral Control of Info-Tech . Journal of Management Information Systems / Winter 2011–12, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 201–234.

Frambach, T. Rudd; schillewaert, N. (1999) Organization innovation adoption:A multilevel

framework for further research. ISBN Report 29-1999

Freeman,K. Paul (2005) Estimating chronic risk from natural disastes in developing countries. Anual

Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.

John, A. Gambatese; Hollowell,M. (2011) Factors influencing diffusion in construction industry.

Construction Management and Economics (May 2011) 29, 507–517

Goyet, V. Cloude (1993) post disaster: the supply management challenge; Diasater, vol.17 iss2 pp

-176

Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top

managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-106.

Hart O. A., Sunday C. E., Joseph, E., U.& Benjamin J. (2011)."Upper echelon theory (UET): A major

determinant of information technology (IT) adoption by SMEs in Nigeria", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 144162

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, T.M. ( 1992). Stakeholder-agency theory. J. Manage. Stud. 29, 131–154.

Hiete, Michael & Merz, Mirjam (2009). An Indicator Framework to Assess the Vulnerability of

Industrial Sectors against Indirect Disaster Losses. In S. Jul & J. Landgren (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for CrisisResponse and Management (ISCRAM 2009), Gothenburg

Hochrainer, S. (2001) Assessing the macroeconomic impacts of natural disasres: Are there any?

International Institute for Applied system Analysis (IISA)

Michael, H.& Mirjam, M. ( 2009 ). Indicator Framework for the Assessment of Indirect Industrial

Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference– Gothenburg, Sweden, May 2009 J. Landgren and S. Jul, eds.

Holt, K. (1983) product innovation management 2nd Ed. Buttewrths co. Publishers Ltd.

Idisemi, A., Ann, L.& Robert, M. (2011),"Factors affecting the effective

utilisation and adoption of sophisticated ICT solutions: Case studies of SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria." Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 125 - 143

Jeyaraj et al., 2006) A review of the predictor, linkages and biases in IT innovation adoption

Research . Journal of Information Technology

Joseph, C. R. (2010). Individual resistance to IT Innovation. Communication of the ACN, Vol.53. No.4

King, J., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K., McFarlan, F., Raman, F. & Yap, F. W. (1994). Institutional factors in information technology innovation. Information Systems

research 5, 139-169

Kleindorfer, P.R. & Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains. Production

and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Don Knight1,C.L., Pearce, K. G., Smith1, J. D., Olian, H. P., Sims, K. A.& Patrick F.(1999 Top

Management Team Diversity, Group Process, And Strategic Consensus. Journal Of Strategic Management J., 20 445-456

Kotler, p.& Keller, L. (2006). Marketing Management 12th Ed: pearson Eeducation ltd.

Kleindorfer, P.R. and Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains.

Production and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Franz, T., Lohrke, A., Bedeian G. & Timothy, B. (2004). The role of top managementteams

in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 5/6 Iss. 2 pp. 63–90

Margaret, N. N. & Timothy M. W. (2011),"Development outcomes of internet and Mobile

phones use in Kenya: the households' perspectives", info, Vol. 13 Iss: 3 pp. 110 – 124 Mansumitrchai, S.;

Chiu, C. (2012) Adoption of internet Banking in UAE: Factors underlying Adoption

Characteristics. International Journal Of Management and Marketing Research Volume 5 Number 1 2012

Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality: published in 1954 (second edition

McAdam, R. (2005),"A multi-level theory of innovation implementation:

Normative evaluation, legitimisation and conflict." European Journal of Innovation

Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp. 373 - 388

McEntire, D.A. (2007a), "The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security", Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 5 No.4, pp.17-22.

McEntire, D.A. (2004). Tenets of vulnerability: an assessment of a fundamental

concept..Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 2 No.2, pp.23-9.

McEntire, D.A. ( 2003). “Searching for a Holistic Paradigm and Policy Guide: A Propofor

the Future of Emergency Management.” International Journal of Emergency Management 1 (3): 298-308.

Mechler, R. (2003) . Macr-economic impacts of natural disasters.

Motohashi, K., Lee., D-R., Sawag,Y-W. & kim, S-H. (2012). Innovative converged

service and its adoption, use and diffusion : a holistic approach to Dffusion of innovation . Journal of Business Economics and Management, 2012, 13(2): 308–333

Munson, S. N., Benap, C. D., Schelz ,M. Moran and T. W. Caroline (2011) on the brink of

change: plant response to climate on Colorado Plateau. Escosphere 2(6)

Michael E. Porter (2008) Competitive strategy. Harvard Business Revie January 2008

Ndubisi, N.O., and Sinti, Q.( 2006). Consumer attitudes, systems characteristics and Internet banking

adoption in Malaysia. Management Research News 29(1/2), 16-29.

Nwaka, I. G. (2005). the urban informal sector in Nigeria: towards economic development & social

harmony. Global urban development magazine vol 1 iss. 1

Okpara, C. Godwin (2009) A Synthesis of factors affecting banking sector in Nigeria. European

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-

Issue 17 (2009)

Popp, A.(2006) The effects of natural disaster in the long-run Major themes in Economics

Premkumar, G. & Robert, M. (1999). Adoption of new information technologies in rural Small

businesses. Omega, 27(4), 467-484.

Quazi, A.; Talukder, M. (2011) Demographic determinants of Adoption of innovation.Journal of

computer & Information systems

Robert, E. Hoskisson Michael F. Michael A. Hitt Richard A. Johnson( ) Th eeffects of

institutional ownership, heterogeneity and internal governance on corporateinnovation

strategies

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, Free Press, New York.

Rothwell, R.and Zegveld, W. (1981) Industrial innovation and public policy:preparing for 180s and

, frances printers publishers

Rubera,G.; Kirca, A., H. (2012) Firms innovativeness & its performance outcomes. Journal of

Marketing Volume 76 (May 2012), 130–147

Sohail (2003) E-Banking and customer preference in Malaysia: An empirical investigation

Information science

Sunday, C. E., Joseph, C. O., Okwudili, G. Tanawat Nebo; Sabastian, N. Ohakwe,

Emma, C.; Rosemery , A. ( 2011) .Using xtics of managers to understand IT Adoption in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 13 [Special Issue - July 2011]

TEARFUND, (2005). Mainstreming disaster risk reduction :a tool for development Organizations.

TEARFUND, 2005

Thong, James Y. L. (1999). An Integrated Model of Information Systems Adoption in Small

Businesses . journal of management information systems, 15(4), 187-214. Toya, H.;

Skidmore, M. ( 2005) Economic Development & and the impact of Natural

Disasrer. Working paper

UN-ISDR (DESA) (2002). Natural Disaster & Sustainable Development World Summit on Sustainable Development. Second preparatory session 28 January – 8 February2002

UNDP,( 2004). Reducing Disaster Risk: A challenge for development. New York: United

Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/rdr.htmUn-isdr

Wang P., Ramilla C. N. (2009). Community Learning in Information Technology ;MIS Quarterly Vol.

No. 4, pp. 709-734/December 2009

The world Bank, (2011). Innovation in disaster risk Financing For Developing countries: Public&

private contribution. Report

Xie, Y., Zhu, S.& Wang, J. (2008). Planning for Safer and More Sustainable future : Introduction of

Urban Planning for Hazards Mitigation Practices by CAUPD in

Chaina IDRC

Yodmani, S. ( 2001) Disaster Risk Management and Vulnerability Reduction: Protecting the Poor.

Paper presented at the Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty Organized by the

Asian Development Bank.

Zsidisin, A. G. ( 2003 ) A grounded definition of supply risk ;Journal of Purchasing Supply

Management 9 (2003) 217–224

.

Aagard P. (2012). Drivers & carriers of public innovation in crime prevention: Public : The Public

Sector. Innovation Journal, Volume 17(1), 2012, article 6.

Byron, M. B. & Shooter, B. S. (2005). an Introduction To Innovation Adoption :

Theories for the Design of a Product Family Information Management Infrastructure. Proceedings of IMECE

Aliyu, A. A., Tasmin, R. B-H. (2012); Information & Communication Technology In Nigerian

Banks. 3rd International Conference On Business And Economic Research (3rd Icber 2012 ) Proceeding 12 - 13 March 2012. Golden Flower Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia.

Altez, R. (2008). Keeping Disasre Alive Public and Private Roles in post Disaster Situation

in Vargas state Venezuela. Interntional Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos 2008

Teresa, M., Amabile, C. N., Hadley, S.& Kramer, J. (2002). Creativity Under the Gun. Harvard

Business Review, August,2002.

Amin, S. & Goldstein, M. (2008). Data Against Disaster;Establishing Effective of Relif

recovery and Rehabiliyation , The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developments, 2008 /World Bank: Sherif Design Group inc.

Aminu, M. & Nabi,l. B. (2009),"Managerial perspective on the impact of globalization in an

African commercial bank: Implications for strategy implementation", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 17 Iss: 3 pp. 184 - 201

Ammann , M. & Verhofen, M ( 2008). Tactical Industry Allocation and Model Uncertainty

Financial Review Volume 43, Issue 2, pages 273–302, May 2008.

Anderson, John E. and Schwager, Paul H., "SME Adoption of Wireless LAN Technology:Applying

the UTAUT Model" (2004). SAIS 2004 Proceedings. Paper http://aisel.aisnet.org/sais2004

Ando, S.& Saito, y. (2008). Gender in Cmmunity Based Disaster Risk Management: Experiences and

Challenges of UNCRD.International and risk conference Davos, 2008.

Aryal, R., K., Erdogan, N. & manyena, S. B. (2008). Risk and Reselience Communities in Nepal as a

Community Based Approach to Disaster Reduction:

Dhankua Experience. International and risk conferenceDavos, 2008.

Bessant, J. and Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Wiley, Chichester.

Birkmann, J. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, New York, United NationUniversity

Press

Birkmann, J.J., Fernando, N., Hettige, S. (2006), "Measuring vulnerability in Sri Lanka at the local

level", in Birkman, J. (Eds),Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster-Resilient Societies, United Nations University Press, Hong Kong,

pp.329-56.

Bolo, A. Z., Muchemi , A. W., Ogutu, M. (2011) Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects

on Corporate Performance. Business Administration and Management (BAM) Vol. 1(3), pp. 82-92, March 10th 2011

Brassington, F. Pettitti S.(2006) Principle of Marketing, 4th Ed. Pearson Educatyion Ltd.

Byron,M. Bethany and shooter, B. Steven ( 2005) Introduction to innovation adoption theories for

desgn of product family information mgt. Infrastructure; preceeding of

IMEECE.2005

Cannon, T. (1994), "Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of ‘natural’ disasters", in Varley, A.

(Eds),Disasters, Development and Environment, Wiley, London Cardona

Cavusoglu, H.;Hu, n.;Li, Y.; Ma, D. (2010) Information Technology diffusion with

influential, imitators & opponents. Journal of Management Information Systems Fall 2010, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 305–334

Choudrie, J., Papazafeiropoulou, A. & Lee, H. (2003). Applying stakeholders theory to analyse the

diffusion of broadband in south Korea. Journal of Information Technology Vol. 18, No. 4 pp.281-291

Correno, M. L. Cardona O. D. ,Barbat A.H., (2008) Disaster Risk from Macroeconomic Perspective:

A Metric for fiscal Vulnerability Evaluation; International Disaster and

Risk Conference,Davos, 2008.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: Systems characteristics, user perceptions and behaviroal impacts. International Journal of Man-Machin Studies, 38, 3, 475-487.

Dwevidi K.Yogesh; yoti, C.;Willem-paul, P. (2007) Development of survey instrument to examine

consumer adoption of broadband. Industrial management and data system,

Vol. 106 Iss: 5 ppp 700-71

Elie-Dit-Cossaque, C.; Pllud, J.; Kalika, m. ( 2012) . Influence of Individual,contextual & social

factors on Perceived Behavioral Control of Info-Tech . Journal of Management Information Systems / Winter 2011–12, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 201–234.

Frambach, T. Rudd; schillewaert, N. (1999) Organization innovation adoption:A multilevel

framework for further research. ISBN Report 29-1999

Freeman,K. Paul (2005) Estimating chronic risk from natural disastes in developing countries. Anual

Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.

John, A. Gambatese; Hollowell,M. (2011) Factors influencing diffusion in construction industry.

Construction Management and Economics (May 2011) 29, 507–517

Goyet, V. Cloude (1993) post disaster: the supply management challenge; Diasater, vol.17 iss2 pp

-176

Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top

managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-106.

Hart O. A., Sunday C. E., Joseph, E., U.& Benjamin J. (2011)."Upper echelon theory (UET): A major

determinant of information technology (IT) adoption by SMEs in Nigeria", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 144162

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, T.M. ( 1992). Stakeholder-agency theory. J. Manage. Stud. 29, 131–154.

Hiete, Michael & Merz, Mirjam (2009). An Indicator Framework to Assess the Vulnerability of

Industrial Sectors against Indirect Disaster Losses. In S. Jul & J. Landgren (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for CrisisResponse and Management (ISCRAM 2009), Gothenburg

Hochrainer, S. (2001) Assessing the macroeconomic impacts of natural disasres: Are there any?

International Institute for Applied system Analysis (IISA)

Michael, H.& Mirjam, M. ( 2009 ). Indicator Framework for the Assessment of Indirect Industrial

Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference– Gothenburg, Sweden, May 2009 J. Landgren and S. Jul, eds.

Holt, K. (1983) product innovation management 2nd Ed. Buttewrths co. Publishers Ltd.

Idisemi, A., Ann, L.& Robert, M. (2011),"Factors affecting the effective

utilisation and adoption of sophisticated ICT solutions: Case studies of SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria." Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 125 - 143

Jeyaraj et al., 2006) A review of the predictor, linkages and biases in IT innovation adoption

Research . Journal of Information Technology

Joseph, C. R. (2010). Individual resistance to IT Innovation. Communication of the ACN, Vol.53. No.4

King, J., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K., McFarlan, F., Raman, F. & Yap, F. W. (1994). Institutional factors in information technology innovation. Information Systems

research 5, 139-169

Kleindorfer, P.R. & Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains. Production

and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Don Knight1,C.L., Pearce, K. G., Smith1, J. D., Olian, H. P., Sims, K. A.& Patrick F.(1999 Top

Management Team Diversity, Group Process, And Strategic Consensus. Journal Of Strategic Management J., 20 445-456

Kotler, p.& Keller, L. (2006). Marketing Management 12th Ed: pearson Eeducation ltd.

Kleindorfer, P.R. and Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains.

Production and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Franz, T., Lohrke, A., Bedeian G. & Timothy, B. (2004). The role of top managementteams

in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 5/6 Iss. 2 pp. 63–90

Margaret, N. N. & Timothy M. W. (2011),"Development outcomes of internet and Mobile

phones use in Kenya: the households' perspectives", info, Vol. 13 Iss: 3 pp. 110 – 124 Mansumitrchai, S.;

Chiu, C. (2012) Adoption of internet Banking in UAE: Factors underlying Adoption

Characteristics. International Journal Of Management and Marketing Research Volume 5 Number 1 2012

Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality: published in 1954 (second edition

McAdam, R. (2005),"A multi-level theory of innovation implementation:

Normative evaluation, legitimisation and conflict." European Journal of Innovation

Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp. 373 - 388

McEntire, D.A. (2007a), "The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security", Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 5 No.4, pp.17-22.

McEntire, D.A. (2004). Tenets of vulnerability: an assessment of a fundamental

concept..Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 2 No.2, pp.23-9.

McEntire, D.A. ( 2003). “Searching for a Holistic Paradigm and Policy Guide: A Propofor

the Future of Emergency Management.” International Journal of Emergency Management 1 (3): 298-308.

Mechler, R. (2003) . Macr-economic impacts of natural disasters.

Motohashi, K., Lee., D-R., Sawag,Y-W. & kim, S-H. (2012). Innovative converged

service and its adoption, use and diffusion : a holistic approach to Dffusion of innovation . Journal of Business Economics and Management, 2012, 13(2): 308–333

Munson, S. N., Benap, C. D., Schelz ,M. Moran and T. W. Caroline (2011) on the brink of

change: plant response to climate on Colorado Plateau. Escosphere 2(6)

Michael E. Porter (2008) Competitive strategy. Harvard Business Revie January 2008

Ndubisi, N.O., and Sinti, Q.( 2006). Consumer attitudes, systems characteristics and Internet banking

adoption in Malaysia. Management Research News 29(1/2), 16-29.

Nwaka, I. G. (2005). the urban informal sector in Nigeria: towards economic development & social

harmony. Global urban development magazine vol 1 iss. 1

Okpara, C. Godwin (2009) A Synthesis of factors affecting banking sector in Nigeria. European

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-

Issue 17 (2009)

Popp, A.(2006) The effects of natural disaster in the long-run Major themes in Economics

Premkumar, G. & Robert, M. (1999). Adoption of new information technologies in rural Small

businesses. Omega, 27(4), 467-484.

Quazi, A.; Talukder, M. (2011) Demographic determinants of Adoption of innovation.Journal of

computer & Information systems

Robert, E. Hoskisson Michael F. Michael A. Hitt Richard A. Johnson( ) Th eeffects of

institutional ownership, heterogeneity and internal governance on corporateinnovation

strategies

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, Free Press, New York.

Rothwell, R.and Zegveld, W. (1981) Industrial innovation and public policy:preparing for 180s and

, frances printers publishers

Rubera,G.; Kirca, A., H. (2012) Firms innovativeness & its performance outcomes. Journal of

Marketing Volume 76 (May 2012), 130–147

Sohail (2003) E-Banking and customer preference in Malaysia: An empirical investigation

Information science

Sunday, C. E., Joseph, C. O., Okwudili, G. Tanawat Nebo; Sabastian, N. Ohakwe,

Emma, C.; Rosemery , A. ( 2011) .Using xtics of managers to understand IT Adoption in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 13 [Special Issue - July 2011]

TEARFUND, (2005). Mainstreming disaster risk reduction :a tool for development Organizations.

TEARFUND, 2005

Thong, James Y. L. (1999). An Integrated Model of Information Systems Adoption in Small

Businesses . journal of management information systems, 15(4), 187-214. Toya, H.;

Skidmore, M. ( 2005) Economic Development & and the impact of Natural

Disasrer. Working paper

UN-ISDR (DESA) (2002). Natural Disaster & Sustainable Development World Summit on Sustainable Development. Second preparatory session 28 January – 8 February2002

UNDP,( 2004). Reducing Disaster Risk: A challenge for development. New York: United

Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/rdr.htmUn-isdr

Wang P., Ramilla C. N. (2009). Community Learning in Information Technology ;MIS Quarterly Vol.

No. 4, pp. 709-734/December 2009

The world Bank, (2011). Innovation in disaster risk Financing For Developing countries: Public&

private contribution. Report

Xie, Y., Zhu, S.& Wang, J. (2008). Planning for Safer and More Sustainable future : Introduction of

Urban Planning for Hazards Mitigation Practices by CAUPD in

Chaina IDRC

Yodmani, S. ( 2001) Disaster Risk Management and Vulnerability Reduction: Protecting the Poor.

Paper presented at the Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty Organized by the

Asian Development Bank.

Zsidisin, A. G. ( 2003 ) A grounded definition of supply risk ;Journal of Purchasing Supply

Management 9 (2003) 217–224

.

Aagard P. (2012). Drivers & carriers of public innovation in crime prevention: Public : The Public

Sector. Innovation Journal, Volume 17(1), 2012, article 6.

Byron, M. B. & Shooter, B. S. (2005). an Introduction To Innovation Adoption :

Theories for the Design of a Product Family Information Management Infrastructure. Proceedings of IMECE

Aliyu, A. A., Tasmin, R. B-H. (2012); Information & Communication Technology In Nigerian

Banks. 3rd International Conference On Business And Economic Research (3rd Icber 2012 ) Proceeding 12 - 13 March 2012. Golden Flower Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia.

Altez, R. (2008). Keeping Disasre Alive Public and Private Roles in post Disaster Situation

in Vargas state Venezuela. Interntional Disaster and Risk Conference, Davos 2008

Teresa, M., Amabile, C. N., Hadley, S.& Kramer, J. (2002). Creativity Under the Gun. Harvard

Business Review, August,2002.

Amin, S. & Goldstein, M. (2008). Data Against Disaster;Establishing Effective of Relif

recovery and Rehabiliyation , The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developments, 2008 /World Bank: Sherif Design Group inc.

Aminu, M. & Nabi,l. B. (2009),"Managerial perspective on the impact of globalization in an

African commercial bank: Implications for strategy implementation", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 17 Iss: 3 pp. 184 - 201

Ammann , M. & Verhofen, M ( 2008). Tactical Industry Allocation and Model Uncertainty

Financial Review Volume 43, Issue 2, pages 273–302, May 2008.

Anderson, John E. and Schwager, Paul H., "SME Adoption of Wireless LAN Technology:Applying

the UTAUT Model" (2004). SAIS 2004 Proceedings. Paper http://aisel.aisnet.org/sais2004

Ando, S.& Saito, y. (2008). Gender in Cmmunity Based Disaster Risk Management: Experiences and

Challenges of UNCRD.International and risk conference Davos, 2008.

Aryal, R., K., Erdogan, N. & manyena, S. B. (2008). Risk and Reselience Communities in Nepal as a

Community Based Approach to Disaster Reduction:

Dhankua Experience. International and risk conferenceDavos, 2008.

Bessant, J. and Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Wiley, Chichester.

Birkmann, J. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, New York, United NationUniversity

Press

Birkmann, J.J., Fernando, N., Hettige, S. (2006), "Measuring vulnerability in Sri Lanka at the local

level", in Birkman, J. (Eds),Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster-Resilient Societies, United Nations University Press, Hong Kong,

pp.329-56.

Bolo, A. Z., Muchemi , A. W., Ogutu, M. (2011) Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects

on Corporate Performance. Business Administration and Management (BAM) Vol. 1(3), pp. 82-92, March 10th 2011

Brassington, F. Pettitti S.(2006) Principle of Marketing, 4th Ed. Pearson Educatyion Ltd.

Byron,M. Bethany and shooter, B. Steven ( 2005) Introduction to innovation adoption theories for

desgn of product family information mgt. Infrastructure; preceeding of

IMEECE.2005

Cannon, T. (1994), "Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of ‘natural’ disasters", in Varley, A.

(Eds),Disasters, Development and Environment, Wiley, London Cardona

Cavusoglu, H.;Hu, n.;Li, Y.; Ma, D. (2010) Information Technology diffusion with

influential, imitators & opponents. Journal of Management Information Systems Fall 2010, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 305–334

Choudrie, J., Papazafeiropoulou, A. & Lee, H. (2003). Applying stakeholders theory to analyse the

diffusion of broadband in south Korea. Journal of Information Technology Vol. 18, No. 4 pp.281-291

Correno, M. L. Cardona O. D. ,Barbat A.H., (2008) Disaster Risk from Macroeconomic Perspective:

A Metric for fiscal Vulnerability Evaluation; International Disaster and

Risk Conference,Davos, 2008.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: Systems characteristics, user perceptions and behaviroal impacts. International Journal of Man-Machin Studies, 38, 3, 475-487.

Dwevidi K.Yogesh; yoti, C.;Willem-paul, P. (2007) Development of survey instrument to examine

consumer adoption of broadband. Industrial management and data system,

Vol. 106 Iss: 5 ppp 700-71

Elie-Dit-Cossaque, C.; Pllud, J.; Kalika, m. ( 2012) . Influence of Individual,contextual & social

factors on Perceived Behavioral Control of Info-Tech . Journal of Management Information Systems / Winter 2011–12, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 201–234.

Frambach, T. Rudd; schillewaert, N. (1999) Organization innovation adoption:A multilevel

framework for further research. ISBN Report 29-1999

Freeman,K. Paul (2005) Estimating chronic risk from natural disastes in developing countries. Anual

Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.

John, A. Gambatese; Hollowell,M. (2011) Factors influencing diffusion in construction industry.

Construction Management and Economics (May 2011) 29, 507–517

Goyet, V. Cloude (1993) post disaster: the supply management challenge; Diasater, vol.17 iss2 pp

-176

Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top

managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-106.

Hart O. A., Sunday C. E., Joseph, E., U.& Benjamin J. (2011)."Upper echelon theory (UET): A major

determinant of information technology (IT) adoption by SMEs in Nigeria", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 144162

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, T.M. ( 1992). Stakeholder-agency theory. J. Manage. Stud. 29, 131–154.

Hiete, Michael & Merz, Mirjam (2009). An Indicator Framework to Assess the Vulnerability of

Industrial Sectors against Indirect Disaster Losses. In S. Jul & J. Landgren (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for CrisisResponse and Management (ISCRAM 2009), Gothenburg

Hochrainer, S. (2001) Assessing the macroeconomic impacts of natural disasres: Are there any?

International Institute for Applied system Analysis (IISA)

Michael, H.& Mirjam, M. ( 2009 ). Indicator Framework for the Assessment of Indirect Industrial

Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference– Gothenburg, Sweden, May 2009 J. Landgren and S. Jul, eds.

Holt, K. (1983) product innovation management 2nd Ed. Buttewrths co. Publishers Ltd.

Idisemi, A., Ann, L.& Robert, M. (2011),"Factors affecting the effective

utilisation and adoption of sophisticated ICT solutions: Case studies of SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria." Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 125 - 143

Jeyaraj et al., 2006) A review of the predictor, linkages and biases in IT innovation adoption

Research . Journal of Information Technology

Joseph, C. R. (2010). Individual resistance to IT Innovation. Communication of the ACN, Vol.53. No.4

King, J., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K., McFarlan, F., Raman, F. & Yap, F. W. (1994). Institutional factors in information technology innovation. Information Systems

research 5, 139-169

Kleindorfer, P.R. & Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains. Production

and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Don Knight1,C.L., Pearce, K. G., Smith1, J. D., Olian, H. P., Sims, K. A.& Patrick F.(1999 Top

Management Team Diversity, Group Process, And Strategic Consensus. Journal Of Strategic Management J., 20 445-456

Kotler, p.& Keller, L. (2006). Marketing Management 12th Ed: pearson Eeducation ltd.

Kleindorfer, P.R. and Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains.

Production and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Franz, T., Lohrke, A., Bedeian G. & Timothy, B. (2004). The role of top managementteams

in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 5/6 Iss. 2 pp. 63–90

Margaret, N. N. & Timothy M. W. (2011),"Development outcomes of internet and Mobile

phones use in Kenya: the households' perspectives", info, Vol. 13 Iss: 3 pp. 110 – 124 Mansumitrchai, S.;

Chiu, C. (2012) Adoption of internet Banking in UAE: Factors underlying Adoption

Characteristics. International Journal Of Management and Marketing Research Volume 5 Number 1 2012

Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality: published in 1954 (second edition

McAdam, R. (2005),"A multi-level theory of innovation implementation:

Normative evaluation, legitimisation and conflict." European Journal of Innovation

Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp. 373 - 388

McEntire, D.A. (2007a), "The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security", Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 5 No.4, pp.17-22.

McEntire, D.A. (2004). Tenets of vulnerability: an assessment of a fundamental

concept..Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 2 No.2, pp.23-9.

McEntire, D.A. ( 2003). “Searching for a Holistic Paradigm and Policy Guide: A Propofor

the Future of Emergency Management.” International Journal of Emergency Management 1 (3): 298-308.

Mechler, R. (2003) . Macr-economic impacts of natural disasters.

Motohashi, K., Lee., D-R., Sawag,Y-W. & kim, S-H. (2012). Innovative converged

service and its adoption, use and diffusion : a holistic approach to Dffusion of innovation . Journal of Business Economics and Management, 2012, 13(2): 308–333

Munson, S. N., Benap, C. D., Schelz ,M. Moran and T. W. Caroline (2011) on the brink of

change: plant response to climate on Colorado Plateau. Escosphere 2(6)

Michael E. Porter (2008) Competitive strategy. Harvard Business Revie January 2008

Ndubisi, N.O., and Sinti, Q.( 2006). Consumer attitudes, systems characteristics and Internet banking

adoption in Malaysia. Management Research News 29(1/2), 16-29.

Nwaka, I. G. (2005). the urban informal sector in Nigeria: towards economic development & social

harmony. Global urban development magazine vol 1 iss. 1

Okpara, C. Godwin (2009) A Synthesis of factors affecting banking sector in Nigeria. European

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-

Issue 17 (2009)

Popp, A.(2006) The effects of natural disaster in the long-run Major themes in Economics

Premkumar, G. & Robert, M. (1999). Adoption of new information technologies in rural Small

businesses. Omega, 27(4), 467-484.

Quazi, A.; Talukder, M. (2011) Demographic determinants of Adoption of innovation.Journal of

computer & Information systems

Robert, E. Hoskisson Michael F. Michael A. Hitt Richard A. Johnson( ) Th eeffects of

institutional ownership, heterogeneity and internal governance on corporateinnovation

strategies

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, Free Press, New York.

Rothwell, R.and Zegveld, W. (1981) Industrial innovation and public policy:preparing for 180s and

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Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.

John, A. Gambatese; Hollowell,M. (2011) Factors influencing diffusion in construction industry.

Construction Management and Economics (May 2011) 29, 507–517

Goyet, V. Cloude (1993) post disaster: the supply management challenge; Diasater, vol.17 iss2 pp

-176

Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P.A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top

managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-106.

Hart O. A., Sunday C. E., Joseph, E., U.& Benjamin J. (2011)."Upper echelon theory (UET): A major

determinant of information technology (IT) adoption by SMEs in Nigeria", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 144162

Hill, C.W.L., & Jones, T.M. ( 1992). Stakeholder-agency theory. J. Manage. Stud. 29, 131–154.

Hiete, Michael & Merz, Mirjam (2009). An Indicator Framework to Assess the Vulnerability of

Industrial Sectors against Indirect Disaster Losses. In S. Jul & J. Landgren (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for CrisisResponse and Management (ISCRAM 2009), Gothenburg

Hochrainer, S. (2001) Assessing the macroeconomic impacts of natural disasres: Are there any?

International Institute for Applied system Analysis (IISA)

Michael, H.& Mirjam, M. ( 2009 ). Indicator Framework for the Assessment of Indirect Industrial

Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference– Gothenburg, Sweden, May 2009 J. Landgren and S. Jul, eds.

Holt, K. (1983) product innovation management 2nd Ed. Buttewrths co. Publishers Ltd.

Idisemi, A., Ann, L.& Robert, M. (2011),"Factors affecting the effective

utilisation and adoption of sophisticated ICT solutions: Case studies of SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria." Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 13 Iss: 2 pp. 125 - 143

Jeyaraj et al., 2006) A review of the predictor, linkages and biases in IT innovation adoption

Research . Journal of Information Technology

Joseph, C. R. (2010). Individual resistance to IT Innovation. Communication of the ACN, Vol.53. No.4

King, J., Gurbaxani, V., Kraemer, K., McFarlan, F., Raman, F. & Yap, F. W. (1994). Institutional factors in information technology innovation. Information Systems

research 5, 139-169

Kleindorfer, P.R. & Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains. Production

and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Don Knight1,C.L., Pearce, K. G., Smith1, J. D., Olian, H. P., Sims, K. A.& Patrick F.(1999 Top

Management Team Diversity, Group Process, And Strategic Consensus. Journal Of Strategic Management J., 20 445-456

Kotler, p.& Keller, L. (2006). Marketing Management 12th Ed: pearson Eeducation ltd.

Kleindorfer, P.R. and Germaine, H.S. (2005). Managing Disruption Risks in Supply Chains.

Production and Operations Management, 14, 1, 53-68.

Franz, T., Lohrke, A., Bedeian G. & Timothy, B. (2004). The role of top managementteams

in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews Vol. 5/6 Iss. 2 pp. 63–90

Margaret, N. N. & Timothy M. W. (2011),"Development outcomes of internet and Mobile

phones use in Kenya: the households' perspectives", info, Vol. 13 Iss: 3 pp. 110 – 124 Mansumitrchai, S.;

Chiu, C. (2012) Adoption of internet Banking in UAE: Factors underlying Adoption

Characteristics. International Journal Of Management and Marketing Research Volume 5 Number 1 2012

Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality: published in 1954 (second edition

McAdam, R. (2005),"A multi-level theory of innovation implementation:

Normative evaluation, legitimisation and conflict." European Journal of Innovation

Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp. 373 - 388

McEntire, D.A. (2007a), "The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security", Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 5 No.4, pp.17-22.

McEntire, D.A. (2004). Tenets of vulnerability: an assessment of a fundamental

concept..Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 2 No.2, pp.23-9.

McEntire, D.A. ( 2003). “Searching for a Holistic Paradigm and Policy Guide: A Propofor

the Future of Emergency Management.” International Journal of Emergency Management 1 (3): 298-308.

Mechler, R. (2003) . Macr-economic impacts of natural disasters.

Motohashi, K., Lee., D-R., Sawag,Y-W. & kim, S-H. (2012). Innovative converged

service and its adoption, use and diffusion : a holistic approach to Dffusion of innovation . Journal of Business Economics and Management, 2012, 13(2): 308–333

Munson, S. N., Benap, C. D., Schelz ,M. Moran and T. W. Caroline (2011) on the brink of

change: plant response to climate on Colorado Plateau. Escosphere 2(6)

Michael E. Porter (2008) Competitive strategy. Harvard Business Revie January 2008

Ndubisi, N.O., and Sinti, Q.( 2006). Consumer attitudes, systems characteristics and Internet banking

adoption in Malaysia. Management Research News 29(1/2), 16-29.

Nwaka, I. G. (2005). the urban informal sector in Nigeria: towards economic development & social

harmony. Global urban development magazine vol 1 iss. 1

Okpara, C. Godwin (2009) A Synthesis of factors affecting banking sector in Nigeria. European

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-

Issue 17 (2009)

Popp, A.(2006) The effects of natural disaster in the long-run Major themes in Economics

Premkumar, G. & Robert, M. (1999). Adoption of new information technologies in rural Small

businesses. Omega, 27(4), 467-484.

Quazi, A.; Talukder, M. (2011) Demographic determinants of Adoption of innovation.Journal of

computer & Information systems

Robert, E. Hoskisson Michael F. Michael A. Hitt Richard A. Johnson( ) Th eeffects of

institutional ownership, heterogeneity and internal governance on corporateinnovation

strategies

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, Free Press, New York.

Rothwell, R.and Zegveld, W. (1981) Industrial innovation and public policy:preparing for 180s and


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